Caro-Kann Defense Chess Opening

Caro-Kann Defense is a King’s Pawn opening that starts with 1. e4 c6 2.d4 d5 is Caro-Kann defense. Black plays with the aim of creating his own strong square d5 and challenging the e4 pawn. This opening usually leads to a positional kind of a game and sometimes structures similar to the queen’s pawn openings which start with 1.d4

White has three main options here. Classical variation with 3.Nc3 or 3.Nd2. The exchange variation with 3.exd5 and the advance variation with 3.e5. There is also fourth option called the fantasy attack which arises after 3.f3. Let’s look at them one by one.

Caro-Kann Exchange variation

3. exd5 cxd5 leads to the Caro-Kann exchange variation. Main continuation for white is 4.c4 which is called panov Botvinnik attack.4…Nf6 5.Nc3 and now black can continue with either 5…Nc6 or 5…e6 and develop naturally.

But black has to be careful not to play 5…Bf5? Because after 6.Qb3! white attacks the b7 and d5 pawn simultaneously and black gets in trouble. In such positions black should always check twice before developing the light squared bishop.

Apart from 4.c4, no other move is dangerous for black. Any other move like 4.Nf3 and black develops naturally. The game can go like 4.Nf3 Nf6 5.Be2 Bf5 6.0-0 e6 7.Bg5 Be7 8.Re1 0-0 and black has completed his development comfortably.

Black can continue playing on the queenside with a6-b5-Nbd7-Qb6.

Caro-Kann Classical Variation

3. Nc3 or 3.Nd2 is the classical variation of Caro-Kann. Black takes 3…dxe4 4.Nxe4 and now black has two options.

4…Nf6 5.Nxf6 and black can play either 5…exf6 or 5…gxf6. Both are playable, however 5…exf6 makes more sense with the idea of Bd6-0-0 while the double f pawn work as a shield in case of kingside attack by white.

Caro-Kann classical main line

4…Bf5 is the most popular and widely played line of the caro-kann classical variation. The line goes 5.Ng3 Bg6 6.h4 h6 7.Nf3 Nd7 8.h5 Bh7 9.Bd3 Bxd3 10.Qxd3.

White’s plan is to play Bd2-0-0-0-c4-Ne4 and start generating kingside attack with g4. Black’s plan is to play e6-Be7-Nf6-0-0 and then counter on the center by playing c5-Qb6..etc. It is recommended to quickly study recent from this position to get a glimpse of play by both sides.

Caro-Kann advance variation

White plays 3.e5 which is the advance variation of Caro-Kann. The main move here is 3…Bf5. Black can also play 3…c5 4.c3 Nc6 or 3…c5 4.dxc5 e6.

Black’s main plan is to play e6 and c5 to challenge the d4 pawn and play a very positional game. Note that black wants to get his light-squared bishop out before playing e6. Therefore 3…Bf5 is the main alternate. Now if white plays naturally with 4.Nf3 e6 5.Be2 Ne7 6.0-0 c5 7.Be3 Nec6 8.c3 Nd7. The structure is similar to some French defense lines with a major difference that black’s light-squared bishop is already out and not trapped at c8 square.

White can play 4.h4 which threatens to trap the bishop after g4. Black should respond simply by playing 4…h5.

White can play the Shirov attack with 4.Nc3 e6 5.g4!

The line goes 5…Bg6 6.Nge2 c5 7.h4 h5 8.Nf4 Bh7! And after 9.Nxh5 Nc6 10.dxc5 Bxc5 the game is very unbalanced and sharp.

White has an extra pawn but his king is open. Black’s d pawn can advance and kick the white knight while also making space for queen to join the attack via d5 square. White also has a weak e5 pawn. Thus the position is very tactical and sharp.

The fantasy attack

White can avoid the main lines and go 3.f3, called the fantasy attack. The best move for black is 3…dxe4 4.fxe4 e5! White can’t take 5.dxe5 due to Qh4+.

5.Nf3 Bg4 6.c3 Nd7 and the game continues.


We have covered all the major variations for Caro-Kann defense. Black’s main aim is to get the Bishop out on f5 before playing e6. In that light, this opening has a plus point over some variations of the French defense. But on the other hand black also has to be careful that the bishop on f5 does not get trapped.

As you have noticed it is not a very difficult opening to learn and play. But since it mostly leads to positional play, it is good to know the plans ahead for both sides.

Harikrishnan A

I am an International Fide Rated player with 10+ years of experience. Played many International Chess Tournaments and Commonwealth games.

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